Category Archives: General Appendices

Relevant Education Acts

Scotland only *

1560* Extract from the First Book of Discipline, which was sanctioned by the General Assembly, 29 May 1560, and subscribed by a great portion of the members of the Privy Council.

‘Of necessitie, therefore, we judge it, that every several kirke have one schoolmaister appointed, such a one at least as is able to teach grammar and the Latine tongue, if the town be of any reputation: If it be upaland, where the people convene to the doctrine but once in the week, then must either the reader or the minister there appointed, take care of the children and youth of the parish, to instruct them in the first rudiments especially in the Catechisme . . . And, furder, we think it expedient, that in every notable town, and specially in the town of the superintendent, there be erected a colledge, in which the arts, at least logic and rhetoricke, together with the tongues, be read by sufficient masters, for whom honest stipends must be appointed: As also provision for those that be poore, and not able by themselves nor by their friends to be sustained at letters, and, in speciall, those that come from landward. . ..’

In consequence it was envisaged that ‘first, the youth-head and tender children shall be nourished and brought up in vertue, in presence of their friends. . . . Secondly, the exercise of children in every kirke shall be great instruction to the aged. Last, the great schooles called the universities, shall be replenished with those that shall be apt to learning, for this must be carefully provided that no father, of what estate or condition that ever he may be, use his children at his own fantasie, especially in their youth-head; but all must be compelled to bring up their children in learning and vertue.’

1693* Act of the Scottish Parliament ‘For Settling the Quiet and Peace of the Church’, 12th June 1693

‘All Schoollmasters and Teachers of Youth in schools are and shall be liable to the tryall, judgement and censure of the Presbyteries of the Bounds for their sufficiency, qualifications and deportment in the said Office’.

‘Thus presbyteries were empowered to test schoolmasters before they began their work, and to inspect schools regularly to ensure that the teaching was satisfactory.’ (Bone). With the growth of Adventure and Subscription Schools church control became limited to parish and, with the co-operation of the town councils, burgh schools. With the extension of education to ‘Assembly Schools’ and Sessional Schools’ these were also inspected by the church authorities.

1696* Act of the Scottish Parliament for Settling of Schools, 9th October 1696

‘That there shall be a School settled and established, and a Schoolmaster appointed in every Parish not already provided, by Advice of the Heritors and Minister of the Parish; and for that Effect, that the Heritors in every parish meet, and provide a commodious House for a School and settle and modify a Sallary to a Schoolmaster, which shall not be under one hundred Merks, nor above two hundred Merks to be paid yearly at two Terms, Whitsunday and Martinmas by equal Portions’.

1802 The Factory Act of 1802 required that children employed by the owners of the newly arising factories were taught reading, writing, and arithmetic during the first four years of their apprenticeship.
1803* Act for making better provision for the Parochial Schoolmasters, and for making further regulations for the better government of the Parish Schools in Scotland

Future salaries of parochial school masters shall not be ‘under the sum of 300 merks Scots per annum nor above the sum of 400 merks Scots per annum”, They were to be revised every 25 years or fixed accordingly to “the value or average price of a chalder of oatmeal for all Scotland’.

The schoolmaster was to be provided with a house not consisting of more than 2 Apartments  including the kitchen.

1834 Poor Law Amendment Act which attempted to ensure daily instruction to pauper children. It proposed the establishment of district schools away from the workhouse premises, bringing together children from workhouses in different parishes.
1838* Act to facilitate the foundation and establishment of additional schools in Scotland

Additional parish schools to be established, ‘parliamentary schools, built with aid of a government grant in quoad sacra parishes. The parish schoolmaster’s house was now to consist of ‘no less than two Rooms besides the Kitchen’.

1846 Committee of Council Minute The Government took on most of the costs of training school teachers, although the training colleges remained denominational. A pupil-teacher system was adopted whereby, in schools approved by an inspector, children aged 13 years could be apprenticed to a teacher for 5 years and, after passing an examination, could attend a training college for three years.
1861* Parochial and Burgh Schoolmasters Act

In August 1861 an Act of Parliament was passed which ‘entirely severed all burgh schools from the Church, by providing that no master of any burgh school shall be subject to the government or discipline of the Established Church or to the trial, judgement or censure of the Presbytery for his sufficiency, qualifications or deportment in office’.

Salaries of schoolmaster were to be not less than £35 nor more than £70. Heritors were permitted to employ a female teacher to give instruction in ‘branches of Female Industry and Household training as well as of Elementary Education’. The female teacher’s salary was not to exceed £30 a year.

Schoolmasters were no longer required to sign the Confession of Faith. The examination of school from the Presbyteries and made the responsibility of the Universities.

1861 Revised Code

The Revised Code was introduced following the Newcastle Commission to ensure parity of provision and attainment. Schools could claim 4s a year for each pupil with a satisfactory attendance record. An additional 8s was paid if the pupil passed examinations in reading, writing and arithmetic. Pupils were assessed by HMIs and teachers, whose salaries normally depended on the size of the grant, were tempted to change their approach to education. In many schools, teachers concentrated exclusively on preparing the children for the yearly HMI visit.

1869 The Endowed Schools Act led to a reorganization of the schools governing bodies, revision of charities providing schooling, and included the extension of education to girls.
1870 Elementary Education Act divided England and Wales into about 2,500 secular school districts; established School Boards elected by local ratepayers; allowed School Boards to build and maintain schools out of the rates (local taxes); let School Boards make their own by-laws which would allow them to charge fees or, if they wanted, to let children in free; allowed women to vote for and serve on the School Boards.
1871 Code of Regulations were created an infant stage for the 5-7 age range, so seven became the age of transfer from the infant school or department to the Elementary School.
1872* Education (Scotland) Act

Made provision for the establishment transfer School Boards and the transfer of parochial and burgh schools to the new authorities.

1876 School leaving age was fixed at 10 years
1880 Mundela’s Education Act made attendance compulsory
1891 School leaving age was raised to 11 years
1899 School leaving age was raised to 12 years
1902 Education Act (England and Wales) abolished School Boards, replacing them with Local Education Authorities.
1918 School leaving age was raised to 14 years and Elementary education was made free in law.

 

A glossary of terms

Adventure schools Schools run by private individuals for profit. The School Inspection Form No. VI for England Wales gives as the definition ‘conducted by the Teacher at his (or her) own risk, and on his (or her) responsibility.
Antinomianism The opposite of legalism in religious thought: the belief that saving grace does not depend on rigid adherence to a set of laws.
Argyll Commission A Royal Commission which enquired into the state of education in Scotland
Assembly school Schools provided by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland (1824) and supervised by the Church of Scotland’s Education Committee. By 1839 there were 118 Assembly schools and by 1843, 146 with an enrolment of 13,000.
British and Foreign School Society Founded in 1808 the British and Foreign School Society co-ordinated the efforts of the Nonconformist churches in providing voluntary schools for their children.
Burgh Schools Burgh Schools usually had church origins and by the Reformation served as Grammar Schools for the large towns. In some of them the number of pupils of secondary age had declined by the mid-nineteenth century.
Certificated teacher A teacher who had attained the certificate of the Committee of Education of the Privy Council.
Chapel of Ease A chapel of ease was a church built within the bounds of a parish for the attendance of those who could not reach the parish church conveniently. The links with the presbytery were less formal and many congregations regarded themselves as independent of the parish church.
Church of Scotland Education Committee Established in 1824, the Church of Scotland Committee co-ordinated the work of the national church in providing and supervising education.
Circulating schools Intensive literacy campaigns involving adults as well as children which moved round the country. They were organised by the ‘Society for the support of Gaelic schools’ established in Edinburgh (1811), Glasgow (1812), and Inverness (1818). The Edinburgh Society concentrated on Gaelic reading, while the Glasgow and Inverness Societies included English, writing and arithmetic.
Disruption In 1843 a large group of ministers and congregations of the Church of Scotland left the church on the grounds that individual churches and congregations had the right to choose their own ministers and not the heritors. The group formed the Free Church of Scotland.
Educational Institute of Scotland (EIS) The EIS was founded in 1847 and remains the largest organisation in Scotland representing the views and needs of teachers.
English school A school which taught English – reading and writing.
Evangelicals Evangelicals are often contrasted with the Moderate Party in the Church of Scotland but there was considerable overlap, particularly at personal level, until the Disruption. Evangelicals emphsised personal belief in Jesus Christ, particularly his death and resurrection. They took part in Christian socialist action, beliving that faith without action was meaningless. They placed particular stress on the teachings of the Bible.
GES The Glasgow Education Society, (1836 – c. 1843) of which Stow was the secretary.
GISS The Glasgow Infant School Society, (1826 – c. 1836) of which Stow was joint secretary with David Welsh.
Heritors In Scotland the term ‘Heritor’ was used to denote the major “landowners” of a Parish until the early 20th century. Historically – land-holding in Scotland is feudal in nature, meaning that all land is technically “owned” by the Crown, which, centuries ago, gave it out – or feued it – to various Tenants-in-chief in return for certain services or obligations. These obligations became largely financial in time, or ceremonial or at least notional. Similarly, these Tenants-in-chief gave it out to lesser “owners”, and the resulting reciprocal obligations too became financial -feudal dues – or notional. Often, though, conditions were imposed by the feudal superior at the time of the transaction – used in the 19th century as a form of planning control. (Most financial obligations were abolished in Scotland in 1974).

The upshot was that “landowners” had differing rights to the land they “owned”. However, those who held their land without limit of time – that is, only had a ceremonial or ancient financial obligation towards their notional “superiors” – were distinguished from others and were called Heritors. In effect, they were the gentry of the Scots countryside, with legal privileges and obligations. Most ordinary farmers, etc rented their land for a specific space of time – from the Heritors. Like the gentry in other countries, the Heritors ruled the countryside. They were responsible for justice, law and order in their district and for keeping the roads in good repair. They were responsible for appointing – and paying – the Minister and the Schoolmaster, and for maintaining the church, manse and schoolhouse. They had also to provide for the poor of their Parish. For all this they levied a rate on all the Heritors in the Parish – and often included non-Heritor Tenant Farmers in the rate too.

Sinclair, Prof. J.M (1991), Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins, Glasgow (Wikipaedia)

Intellectual system A system of question and answer designed to foster knowledge and understanding developed by John Wood in the Sessional (and model) school in Edinburgh. Although often seen a rival to Stow’s system, the difference was mainly in emphasis.
Lancastrian A monitorial system developed by Joseph Lancaster, favoured in dissenting and utilitarian circles (see also below).
Latitudinarianism Initially a pejorative term applied to a group of 17th-century English theologians who believed in conforming to official Church of England practices but who felt that matters of doctrine, liturgical practice, and ecclesiastical organization were of relatively little importance. In this, they built on Richard Hooker’s position, in Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, that God cares about the moral state of the individual soul and that such things as church leadership are “things indifferent”. However, they took the position far beyond Hooker’s own and extended it to doctrinal matters. As a positive position, their stance was that human reason is a sufficient guide when combined with the Holy Spirit for the determination of truth in doctrinal contests, and therefore that legal and doctrinal rulings that constrain reason and the freedom of the believer were neither necessary nor salutary. At the time, their position was referred to as low church (in contrast to the High church position). Later, the latitudinarian position was called Broad church.
Madras System A monitorial system, favoured by the Church of England since Bell was an Anglican clergyman) developed by a Scotsman, Andrew Bell, at Egmore, near Madras  (see below).
Merchants’ House of Glasgow The Merchants House of Glasgow was founded in 1605 to represent the interests of the city’s merchants and to provide charitable assistance for members and their relatives in hard times. The House had an important role in local government and until 1833 it was strongly represented on the town council. (www.universitystory.gla.ac.uk/biography/?id=CB0019&type=C)
Minutes of the Committee of Council on Education From 1839 when the first Committee of Council on Education, for the whole of Britain, was established, until 1939, the minutes of the Committee’s proceedings, provided they were not challenged and overruled by Parliament, had statutory force, and therefore many important changes were introduced not by legislation, but simply by the publication of a minute.
Moderate Party Ministers (and laymen) in the Church of Scotland who distrusted both enthusiasm and dogmatism, preferring structure and organisation as a bulwark against heresy. They supported the ideas emanating from the Scottish enlightenment, emphasised Christian conduct rather than creed, rationalism and scholarship. They were dominant in the Church of Scotland during the late 18th century until the 1830’s when the Evangelicals  (see above) became more powerful.
Monitorial System Publicised by Andrew Bell (National Society) and Joseph Lancaster (British and Foreign School Society), this was a system whereby clever pupils were taught particular pieces of knowledge or skill, and then, as ‘monitors’, given the task of passing this on to their fellows in the class. It enabled one teacher to achieve limited results with very large numbers, and for a time seemed a solution to the problems of popular education. The system was not popular in Scotland.
National Society Founded in 1811, this society co-ordinated the efforts of the Anglican church in providing schools.
Normal Schools Institutions in which intending teachers were trained in the best practice of the time, the name coming from the Latin ‘norma’, a rule. Probably the first was founded by the Glasgow Educational Society under the direction of David Stow at Dundas Vale in 1837.
Parish Schools From 1696 onwards the heritors of each parish of Scotland were legally required to provide a school for the children of the parish, and these schools formed the basis of the Scottish educational system from then until 1872.
Pupil-teachers Senior pupils who entered into an apprenticeship, assisting with the teaching of the school, and being given further education outside school hours. On satisfactory completion of their apprenticeship, they might go to a Training College to become certificated teachers.
Quoad sacra A quoad sacra parish is one created and functioning for ecclesiastical purposes only. Originally a parish was “a township or cluster of townships having its own church, and ministered to by its own priest, parson, or parish clergyman, to whom its tithes or teinds [a proportion of the inhabitants produce or income] and ecclesiastical dues were paid” (Oxford Dictionary). The ecclesiastical parish, as a unit, was distinguished from the civil parishes after 1597 with the passing of the first Poor Relief Act. This division of the medieval parish created a parish that dealt solely with ecclesiastical functions and had its own church and clergyman.
Revised Code Instituted in England in 1862, this revised the codification of all the existing regulations about grants for education, and operated a system of payment by results in individual examinations of pupils by the inspectors. By the time it was applied to Scotland in 1873, some of its original rigour had been lost, though the principles remained the same.
Sessional schools Schools established and controlled by the kirk sessions of prosperous churches in the large towns, usually giving only elementary instruction but, in the conditions of the industrial revolution, playing a very important part in the educational provision of the time.
Subscription schools Schools organised by parents, or the local community, who collected money to provide a salary for a teacher for their children particularly when the Parish school ran out of space owing to an influx of workers, for example miners and iron workers A Subscription List would be sent round all members of the community, from highest to lowest and from the smallest to the largest businesses. Often this was indicative of the broad-based support for a school within the community. Not all contributions were made in cash: masons, joiners etc could contribute in kind and/or labour.
Voluntary schools Schools which were controlled by the religious denominations. They might receive government grants for the work they were doing, but could obtain no support from the rates.

The ‘lost’ first edition of ‘The Training System’

While editions two to eleven of Stow’s ‘The Training System’ are still extant, it has always been assumed that the first edition has been lost. Stenhouse 1notes that the Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature gives the 1st Edition as 1836 but the Second Edition, ‘Moral Training Infant And Juvenile As Applicable To The Condition Of The Population Of Large Towns’ was published in 1834 so the Cambridge Bibliography is self-evidently incorrect. Alexander Morgan states that ‘the date of the first edition is doubtful, but the second edition was published in 1834. 2 This article argues that the book ‘Infant training: A dialogue explanatory of the system adopted in the model infants School, Glasgow by a director’ usually catalogued as the first edition of ‘Granny and Leezy’ is, in fact, the first edition of ‘The Training System’.

  1. No date is given for this edition. It is calculated from references to: ‘The formation of the Society seven years ago’ (1826+7=1833), page 4; ‘During the Spring of last year (1832)’, page 5; The Preface is dated ‘Glasgow, 31st August, 1833, page 18. To start with the obvious, therefore, the first two editions were probably published consecutively in 1833 and 1834.
  1. Equally obvious is the length of the two editions, with the second edition, at 237 pages, being longer than the first at 144 pages.
  1. The first edition is written by ‘A Director’. In the early years, Stow seldom put his name to articles, referring to himself as ‘a correspondent’; 3] ‘a friend to the ignorant’; 4‘S. D.’;5‘the secretary of the Infant School Society’; 6‘a gentleman of this city’; 7or Alpha Beta. 8
  1. All the committee members of the Glasgow Educational Society were also known as Directors. 9This suggests that the writer of ‘Infant Training’ thought of himself as directly associated with both the school and the Glasgow Educational Society.
  1. Chapters 4 and 5 of the second edition, known to be by Stow, – ‘Grandmothers’ First Visit to the Infant School – a Dialogue’ and ‘Grandmother’s Second Visit’ – are exactly the same as chapters 2 and 3 of the possible first edition.
  1. To regard ‘Granny and Leezy’as a separate publication misses Stow’s point. He initially intended to use the dramatic dialogue in the Glasgow vernacular to describe his ‘system’ to those with an immediate interest – i.e. the parents and friends of the infant school. It was only when ‘the system’ attracted a wider audience that he converted to standard English for the ‘Training System’, eventually publishing editions of ‘Granny and Leezy’ as a separate publication.
  1. ‘Granny and Leezy’ is repeated almost verbatim from the first edition to the second with the following exceptions:
  • Inexplicably, while almost all Scottish dialect terms are retained, for example kinkhost’ meaning whooping cough’ and ‘haveril’ meaning a simpleton someone who makes a fuss out of nothing, a few words are anglicised: ‘little’ for ‘wee’ and ‘mother’ for ‘mither’. These are both on the first page of the actual dialect. ‘Spectacles’ for ‘spentacles’, ‘wall nearest us’ for ‘wa’niest us’ and ‘no’ for ‘na’ near the beginning and suggest that the publisher wished to anglicise the book for wider publication and either gave up after the first few pages; or only knew these few terms.
  • A number of hymns and songs have been added or extended in the second edition, for example ‘Lesson on cleanliness’, ‘London is the capital of England’, ‘Thou Guardian of our earliest days’, ‘The Sheep’, ‘Pence Table, ‘The Dog’, ‘Infant School Song’ and ‘The Infant School’.
  • Some pedagogical discussions have been extended, for example an unexpected but correct response by the children to a question, or a response when they do not know the answer, as in the 2nd Edition, page 119. An extension of the exegesis of a sentence by the teacher is given in the footnotes of page 178 in the 2nd
  • There are some minor changes suggesting that the 2nd Edition is not a simple re-print of the first, for example the omission of ‘Sir’ occasionally in the children’s responses, the use of the word ‘ten’ instead of the numeral 10, the spelling of ‘connection’ rather than ‘connexion’, ‘Bible-flower’ replacing ‘flower’ and the occasional title.
  • In the second edition the term ‘girls’ replaces actual children’s names such as ‘Margaret’ and ‘Jane’.
  • A very different selction of Scripture questions is used on pages 108-110 1st Edition and on pages 187-190 2nd
  1. Far from the ‘First Edition’ being simply that of ‘Granny and Leezie’, it contains ample material related to the pedagogy and management of infant schools in general. The intention of the book is to extend the discussion about infant training and to exemplify the system currently operating in Glasgow.

Reference is made in the Preface:

  • To there being five schools in operation attended by about 700 children;
  • To the formation of the ‘Society seven years ago’: this would be the Glasgow Infant School Society in 1826;
  • The importance of observing the system in action is emphasized (the beginning of teacher training);
  • The need to train boys and girls together;
  • The necessity for ‘partial government endowment’;
  • The importance of some payment in order to value education
  • The necessity of suitable, enclosed, playgrounds;
  • The emphasis on Moral education in addition to intellectual;
  • The contaminating influence of the environment during the week compared with only two hours of Sabbath School;
  • The ‘sympathy of numbers’;
  • The limiting and limited role of parents;
  • The phrase ‘Prevention is better than cure’’
  • The central importance of religious education

Reference is made in the Appendix to:

  • The list of schools in operation in Glasgow
  • School plans
  • Raising funds for schools
  • The qualifications required of an infant school master
  • The moral machinery required for large towns
  • Rules and regulations for an infant school after the Glasgow model
  • Parents’ views (in letters)

There is therefore considerable similarity of subject matter with the following editions of ‘The Training System’ rather than the following editions of ‘Granny and Leezy’

  1. References are made to the need to ‘train’ children: page 10 (three references); page 11 (the importance of numbers of children rather than individuals); page 13 (three references)
  1. The peculiar machinery of the Infant system is described as follows:
  1. An enclosed play-ground in which the master or mistress, or both, exercise at constant superintendents at play, and where, each scholar finding a number of companions of his own particular age, the natural and therefore the true dispositions of every child fully developed, and exercise is afforded and health attended to.
  2. A gallery fitted to seek to the hall children, for the development of mental, moral, and social sympathy; where the eyes of all may more easily be fixed upon the master and upon the object or picture presented to their retention.
  3. Picture lessons of objects to arrest the wandering eye of the child, and, in unison with oral narrative, to inform his understanding. Without such accompaniments, viz, play-ground, gallery, and picture lessons, schools may be formed for the reception of Infants, arts, destitute of these, no child can be taught under what is termed the Infant system – which is simply taking man as we find him, and adapting education to compound nature, as moral, religious, physical, and rational beings.
  1. Although Stow comments ‘In the first instance I had little hope of this work being purchased by anyone and therefore gave away nearly the whole of the first edition’. (Preface to the Sixth Edition 1845), 800 copies were produced must have been printed.
  1. Notices of First Edition of this Work

Of the six notices concerning the First Edition of “this” work given in the second edition of “The Training System” the following from the ‘Scottish Guardian’ appears conclusive:

“To all our readers who are interested in the improvements of the rising generation – and who is that calls himself a Christian should not be interested – we recommend the perusal of this little volume, containing, in a dialogue, entitled “Grandmothers Visit to see Infant School,” an interesting exposition of the whole system.”

The Training System, second edition, end flyleaf

Furthermore, the following quote from the ‘Christian Instructor’ emphasizes a “system”  more reminiscent of “The Training System” than ‘Granny and Leezy;

“Much, however, as we have to congratulate ourselves on the great and beneficial change that has taken place on the old system of education, we have two congratulate ourselves yet more on the invention of a new system of education altogether – a system peculiar to the present age – a system invented for, and adapted to, and most numerous class of the human race – overlooked by every other system from the beginning of the world to the present day, — I mean the system of Infant Training in Infant Schools.”

The Training System, second edition, end flyleaf.

[1]          Lawrence Stenhouse, Lawrence Hartvig Nissen. (1961) ‘Impressions of the Scottish Educational System in the Mid-Nineteenth Century’ in British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 9, No. 2 (May, 1961), pp. 143-154.

[2]          Morgan, A. (1929). The makers of Scottish history. London: Longmans, Green and Co., page 180.

[3]          The Glasgow Herald – May 26th 1828.

[4]       Extracted From Dr. Cleland’s Statistical Work. (1831) (2nd  ed.).

[5]       Glasgow Herald, 18th January 1828: ‘Wanted: for An Infant School’.

[6        Glasgow Herald, 26th May, 1828.

[7]          GES Third Report, List of Office Bearers.

[8] The Scotsman, 15th October, 1828: Attack on secular infant schools.

[9]        Glasgow Herald, 21st May, 1835: Examination of the Educational Society’s Model Infant School; The Scottish Guardian, 2nd November, 1837: Report of the opening of the Normal Seminary.

Acknowledgements

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National Archives of Scotland
National Library of Scotland
National Library of Scotland town views 1580-1919. Available at: http://www.nls.uk/maps/early/towns.html#glasgow (8 April, 2010).
Newspaper accounts 1824-1997 including The Glasgow Herald (sic); The Scotsman; The Scottish Guardian; The Scottish Educational Journal; The Times Educational Supplement; see CD of digitised sources.
Norham memorial inscriptions: Available at http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~agene/norhammi/index.html (8 April, 2010).
Old Glasgow gentry, maps of Glasgow. Available at: http://gdl.cdlr.strath.ac.uk/smihou/smihou103.htm (8 April, 2010).
Ordnance Survey maps, http:// www.anquet.co.uk (8 April, 2010).
Origins network: http://www.originsnetwork.com/ (8 April, 2010).
Paisley and Renfrew Advertiser 1830, 1831.
Paisley Directories, The, containing a list of the Merchants, Trades, manufacturers in the town and suburbs 1783, 1810, 1812-13, 1823, 1827, 1828, 1829-30, 1831-32, 1832-33.
Paisley Grammar School website http://www.paisley-gs.renfrewshire.sch.uk/ (8 April, 2010).
Paisley Herald Index 1853-1883.
Paisley High Kirk Churchyard records.
Paisley Street Plan 1834-1838.
Parish Registers, Berwick-upon-Tweed Public Record Office.
Parkhurst prison heritage museum. Available at: http://www.wightonline.co.uk/parkhurst-heritage/index.html (8 April, 2010).
Parliamentary papers: (1834) Factory Inspectors. Reports of factories to the Secretary of State; presented according to the provisions of the act of Parliament. pps 2, 3.
Parliamentary Papers: (1851) Census of Great Britain.. Education. England and Wales. Report and tables.
Poor Law Commissioners Report 1834. Available at:   http://econlib.org/ LIBRARY/YPDBooks/Reports/rptPLC. Html (8 April, 2010).
Poor Law Enquiry (Scotland) (1844). Appendix, part I. Containing minutes of evidence taken at Edinburgh, Glasgow, Greenock, Paisley, Ayr and Kilmarnock. Evidence of Mr D. Stow, 17th April, 1843, pps. 423-428.
Poor Law Union correspondence. Available at: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline (8 April, 2010).
Premier family history and genealogy store: http://www.parishchest.com/ (8 April, 2010).
Proposal for Establishing an Infant School in Glasgow. 1827.
Public Record Office England and Wales.
Records of the Freemen of Berwick, Berwick-upon-Tweed Public Record Office.
Regulations for the instruction and training of teachers, 1904. Prefatory Memorandum.
Renfrewshire Monumental Inscriptions pre 1855 Vol. 2 Edited by J. F. and S. Mitchell.
Roll of the Freemen of the Town of Berwick-upon-Tweed 1800-1899.
Rootsweb: http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/(8 April, 2010).
Rusk, Robert R. Notes on David Stow and the Training System. Papers of Marjorie Cruikshank, Glasgow: University of Strathclyde archives.
School-houses (Scotland.) An account of the expenditure of the several sums of £10,000 granted by Parliament in the years 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837 and 1838, for the erection of school-houses or model schools in Scotland; together with the names and designation of all parties from whom applications have been received by the Lords of Her Majesty’s Treasury for aid out of the above grants, stating whether for parochial, or for what other schools, with the answers thereto; specifying the dates of each. Paper number: (282). Volume/page: XLI.383
Scotland Census Information 1841, 1851, 1861, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901.
Scotland’s People: http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/(8 April, 2010).
Scottish Wills and Testaments.
Southwell Union Workhouse: Inspection reports of the Poor Law Commissioners: The National Archives
Stow House Hotel Aysgarth, Information Folder.
Stow’s correspondence 1823-1852 (see CD of digitised resources).
The Edinburgh and Literary Review (1834) Seminaries for Teachers: July 1834.
The Glasgow Educational Society 3rd Report, 1836.
The Glasgow Educational Society 4th Report, 1837.
The Glasgow Educational Society 5th Report, 1839.
The Glasgow Educational Society appeal letter, 1836.
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine. 2nd Edition, 1834.
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine. First Collected Series. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd; and London: Simpkin and Marshall, 1875.
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine. Glasgow: Glasgow Infant School Society, 1832.
The Glasgow Infant School Repository 4th ed., 1849.
The Glasgow Infant School Society 1st Report, 1829.
The Glasgow Infant School Society 2nd   Report, 1830.
The Glasgow Infant School Society’s Visitors’ Book, Manuscript entries1829-1831.
The Loyal Reformers’ Gazette, Vol. 1. Glasgow: Muir, Gowans and Co. 1831
The Scots’ Magazine, Edinburgh, 1807.
The Scotsman newspaper archive records online.
The Scottish Education and Literary Journal, 1853
The Scottish Jurist (1838) Reports of cases decided in the supreme courts in Scotland and in the House of Lords on appeal from Scotland, Vol. XI. Edinburgh: Anderson.
The Scottish Jurist (1839) Reports of cases decided in the supreme courts in Scotland and in the House of Lords on appeal from Scotland, Vol. XII. Edinburgh: Anderson.
The Scottish Guardian, November 2nd 1837.
The Times newspaper archive records online.
The Wesleyan-Methodist Magazine (1868) Vol. XIV. London: Wesleyan Conference Office.
Tillmouth Country House Hotel, Cornhill-on-Tweed Information Folder.
Treasurer’s accounts of receipts and disbursements of the Funds of St John’s Parish, Glasgow, as applicable to the Maintenance of the Poor, Educational Purposes etc. from 26th September, 1819, till 31st December, 1835. Glasgow University Library Eph. L/3.
Twizel Castle http://www.keystothepast.info/durhamcc/(8 April, 2010).
United Kingdom incoming and outgoing shipping passenger lists 1878-1960.
Visitation of the County of Lincoln, made by Sir Edward Bysshe, Knight, Clarenceaux King of Arms in the Year of our Lord 1666.
Wiltshire archives: www.wiltshire.gov.uk/community (8 April, 2010).
Windsor Herald of Arms: Hunt W. G., TD BA FCA.
Workhouse website (The). Available at: http://www.workhouses.org.uk/(8 April, 2010).

Bibliography of Stow’s work

Title Publisher if known Edition/cost/no. of pages Date Some locations of the original
Bible Training for Sabbath Schools
Bible Training with illustrations for the use of Sabbath schools Glasgow

W.R. McPhun

Fourth Edition

‘Fourth thousand’

72 pages

6d

1837

 

Advertised GES Fourth Report

Google Books National Library of Scotland

(Microfilm)

University of Edinburgh

Bible-training: with illustrations for the use of Sabbath schools; being the religious department of the training system for week-day schools

Manual for Sabbath School Teachers and Parents

Glasgow

W. R. McPhun

‘Fifth Thousand’ 1838 University of Edinburgh Library

British Library

Bible Training for Sabbath schools, and week-day schools Glasgow

Blackie

7th

Edition

119 pages

1842 Cambridge University Library

Google Books

University of Edinburgh

University of Cambridge

Bible Training for Sabbath Schools and for the Morning Exercise in Week Day Schools. Blackie & Son

London

8th

Edition

Enlarged

168 pages

1847

(1846)

University of Strathclyde

Fitch states 1857

Quoted by Houseman

Google Books

British Library

University of Newcastle

Bible training for day schools and Sabbath schools: skeleton sketches for training lessons Appendix to Stow’s Training System, 10th Edition 1854 University of Strathclyde
Bible Training: A Manual for Sabbath School Teachers and Parents.

 

Edinburgh:

Thomas Constable and Co.

9th Edition enlarged 1859 University of Edinburgh Library

Bodleian Library, Oxford

National Library of Scotland

British Library

University of Cambridge

Bible Emblems
Bible Emblems, with sketches of lessons, for the use of Sabbath school teachers Part 1 London Part 1 1855 University of Strathclyde,

Bodleian Library, Oxford

British Library

Aberdeen University

University of Cambridge

Bible Emblems for the use of Parents and Teachers with Practical Hints in conducting training lessons.

 

London 1857 University of Strathclyde,

Paisley Central Library

Bodleian Library, Oxford

British Library

University of Cambridge

Chapters in Infant Training (by a ‘director’) Granny and Leezy: a dialogue, explanatory of the system adopted in the model infant school, Glasgow Collins 1833 Strathclyde University Library

Jordanhill Campus

Mitchell Library

University of Edinburgh Library

 

Chapters IV and V of ‘Of Moral Training Infant and Juvenile, as applicable to the condition of the population of large towns,’ Glasgow

William Collins

2nd Edition 1834 Mitchell Library, Glasgow
Granny and Leezy
Granny and Leezy: Infant Training, A dialogue explanatory of the System Adopted in the Model Infant School, Glasgow Glasgow, William Collins This edition catalogued as Granny and Leezy, but is actually the ‘lost’ 1st Edition of ‘The Training System’. 1833 Mitchell Library, Glasgow

University of Glasgow

University of Edinburgh

 

Granny and Leezy: A dialogue, or Grandmother’s first visit to the Infant Training School

 

Glasgow

W. R. McPhun

5th Edition enlarged

6d

By 1837

Ad. GES Fourth Report

University of Edinburgh Library
Granny and Leezy: A Scottish Dialogue. Grandmother’s visit to the First Infant Training School

 

Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts

 

6th

Edition

1860 University of Strathclyde

Faculty of Education library

Mitchell Library, Glasgow

University of Edinburgh

Moray House Library

National Library of Scotland

British Library

University of Aberdeen

University of Cambridge

The Glasgow Infant School Society First Report William Collins and Co. 32 1829 University of Strathclyde Library

 

The Glasgow Infant School Society Second Report William Collins and Co. 24 1830 University of Strathclyde Library

 

The Glasgow Educational Society II: (Hints towards the formation of a Normal Seminary) 1835 University of Strathclyde Library
The Glasgow Educational Society’s Normal Seminary Third Report William Collins and Co. 37 1836 University of Strathclyde Library

 

The Glasgow Educational Society’s Normal Seminary Fourth Report William Collins and Co. 29 1837 University of Strathclyde Library

 

The Glasgow Educational Society’s Normal Seminary Fifth Report Publisher noted stated but probably

William Collins and Co.

36 1839 University of Strathclyde Library

 

National Education
Supplement to Moral training and the training system; with plans for erecting and fitting up training school. (With Speech of R. A. Slaney in the House of Commons, on Thursday, Nov. 30, 1837, on the state of education of the poorer classes in large towns) 1837 University of Cardiff Library

University of Glasgow Library

National Library of Scotland

University of Aberdeen

University of Cambridge

National Education: supplement to ‘Moral Training’ and ‘The Training System’, with plans for erecting and fitting up training schools Glasgow

W. R. McPhun

1839 University of Glasgow Library

University of Edinburgh Library

Cambridge University Library (Facsimile)

National Library of Scotland

British Library

University of Aberdeen

National Education: the duty of England in regard to the moral and intellectual elevation of the poor and working classes: teaching or training London

Hatchard and Son

1847 University of Glasgow Library

University of Edinburgh Library

University of Cambridge Library

National Library of Scotland

Bodleian Library

British Library

The Training System

Stow’s manual of instruction for school-teachers and managers, variously entitled but collectively known as ‘The Training System’, ran to eleven editions. Extant copies of all are accessible in UK libraries. The seventh, eighth and tenth editions are available unabridged on the Internet via Google Books (www.books.google.com/). The tenth edition has also been reprinted as a facsimile by Elibron Classics, (www.elibron.com) and Kessinger Publishing (www.kessinger.net). The eleventh edition is available at  https://archive.org/search.php?query=title%3A%28moral%20training%20for%20large%20towns%29

Acomparison of the chapter content of each edition has been undertaken and is available separately.

Infant Training, A dialogue explanatory of the System Adopted in the Model Infant School, Glasgow Glasgow, William Collins 1st

Edition

Often regarded as ‘lost’. This edition catalogued and Granny and Leezy, see Appendices.

1833 Mitchell Library, Glasgow
Moral Training Infant and Juvenile, as applicable to the condition of the population of Large Towns Glasgow

William Collins

2nd Edition

18 mo

3s 6d

cloth

1834 Mitchell Library, Glasgow

British Library

The Training System adopted in the model schools of the Glasgow Educational Society: A manual for Infant and Juvenile schools which includes a system of Moral Training suited to the condition of Large Towns

 

W. R. McPhun 3rd

Edition

18 mo, 3s cloth

237 pages

1836 Glasgow University Library

National Library of Scotland

National Library of Wales

Mitchell Library, Glasgow

Google Books

British Library

John Rylands Library, Manchester

The Training System established in the Glasgow Normal Seminary and its Model Schools.

 

London 4th

Edition The ‘New’ Edition

1840 Paisley Central Library

Bodleian Library

Oxford (2 copies)

National Library of Scotland

University of Wales (Aberystwyth)

Moral Training and the Training System established in the Glasgow Normal Seminary and its model Schools.

It may have been this edition which was translated into German, see A letter from W. Hauser to John Miller, 21st, December 1844, quoted “The Training System”, sixth edition, 1845.

London 5th

Edition

1841 University of Strathclyde

Glasgow, G4 0NS

Scotland

 

University of Edinburgh

Moray House Library

 

The Training System of Education, Religious, Intellectual and Moral as established in the Glasgow Normal Training Seminary. Rearranged with additions Glasgow:

Blackie and Sons

6th

Edition

1845 University of Cambridge Library
The Training System, Religious, Intellectual and Moral. A manual for Schools; also an analysis of the System of Training School-masters as established in the Glasgow Normal Seminary Glasgow:

Blackie and Son

7th

Edition

1846 Available in Google Books in online .pdf format

British Library (adds ‘Enlarged’

The Training System, the Moral Training System and the Normal Seminary.

 

London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans 8th

Edition

(Enlarged)

1850 Cardiff University Library

Cambridge University Library

National Library of Scotland

British Library

Available in Google Books in online .pdf format

The Training System, the Moral Training System and the Normal Seminary.

 

London:

Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans

9th Edition

(Enlarged)

1853 Edinburgh University Library National Library of Scotland

Cambridge University Library

Bodleian Library, Oxford

British Library

 

The Training System, Moral Training School and Normal Seminary for Preparing School-trainers and Governesses.

 

London:

Long, Brown, Green and Longmans

10th Edition (Enlarged) 1854 Glasgow University Library

Cambridge University Library

Bodleian Library, Oxford

National Library of Scotland

University of Edinburgh

British Library

University of Sheffield

University of Leicester

 

 

 

 

The Training System of Education including ‘Moral School Training for Large Towns’ and ‘Normal Seminary for Training Teachers to Conduct the System’

 

London:

Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts

11th Edition

(Enlarged)

1859 Strathclyde University

Faculty of Education library

National Library of Wales

National Library of Scotland

The London Library

Cambridge University Library

Bodleian Library, Oxford

British Library

Short articles
Infant Schools Article in ‘Enumeration of the Inhabitants of the City of Glasgow’ by James Cleland 1831 Strathclyde University Library

 

Pamphlet revered to in J.R.S.C. (1869) David Stow in The Sunday School Teacher, Vol. II. London: Sunday School Union, pps. 221-225 1832 Not currently traced.
Infant Schools Article in ‘Enumeration of the Inhabitants of the City of Glasgow’ by James Cleland 2nd Edition 1832 Strathclyde University Library

 

Physical and moral training 1832
Hints Towards the Formation of A Normal Seminary in Glasgow for the Professional Training of Schoolmasters. No author, believed to be by Stow, but possibly by David Welsh? II 1835 Strathclyde University Library

 

Memoranda: or Practical Hints on The Training System for the use of the students of the Glasgow Normal Seminary. 1838
Letters: Stow to Dr. Thomas Chalmers and vice versa

 

University of Edinburgh

New College

 

Outlines of the Training System 2d By 1837

Advertised separately in GES Fourth Report

Moral Training in Large Towns 18 mo, 3s 6d, cloth

Advertised separately in GES Fourth Report

By 1837

 

Practical Hints on the Training System, addressed to the Students of the Glasgow Normal Seminary 4d

Advertised separately in GES Fourth Report

By 1837

 

Key to the First Spelling Book 2d

Advertised separately in GES Fourth Report

By 1837

 

Picturing out in words in the Scottish Sabbath School Teachers’ Magazine Vol. 1 1844
Factory statistics: extracted from Stow’s training system of education: religious, moral and intellectual London: Blackie and Son 1846 University of Massachusetts
Report of the 25th meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science; held at Glasgow in September 1855
Gallery Training Lessons: orally conducted in natural science and common things London: Trubner and Co. In ‘The American Journal of Education’ edited by Henry Barnard Vol. IX 1860 Google Books

WorldCat

Boston Public Library

The Glasgow Infant School magazine
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine January-December

290 pps

1832 University of Strathclyde Library
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine Gallie 2nd

Edition

1834 University of Glasgow Library?

Mitchell Library, Glasgow

The Glasgow Infant School Magazine 3rd Edition 1835 University of Glasgow Library

Mitchell Library, Glasgow

The Glasgow Infant School Magazine 1843 Mitchell Library, Glasgow
The Glasgow Infant School Repository Gallie, Collins, and Hamilton, Glasgow;

 

4th Edition Improved 1849 Mitchell Library, Glasgow
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine Second Series 1854 Mitchell Library, Glasgow
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine First Series 1857 Mitchell Library, Glasgow
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine First Series 1860 Mitchell Library, Glasgow
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine London: Darton and Co. Holborn Hill,

 

Second Series

Ninth Thousand

1861 Mitchell Library, Glasgow
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine First Series 1867 Mitchell Library, Glasgow
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine Second Series 1869 Mitchell Library, Glasgow
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine London: Simpkin, Marshall First (Collected) Series

348 pps

1869 University of Strathclyde
The Glasgow Infant School Magazine Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd

London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co.

First Series

Forty-Third Thousand

348 pps

1875 University of Strathclyde